Five Major Arguments
1. The Unique Literary Form of the Qur'an
The Qur’an is a unique form of Arabic speech. The form of its language can not be described as prose or poetry. It achieves this unique literary form by,
i. Intermingling metrical and non-metrical speechii. Transcending the defining features of saj’ (rhymed prose) iii. Using literary and linguistic devices that render it stylistically distinct
The totality of every chapter has a special character, with its own unique form, and its unique use of literary devices. These features of the Qur’an are part of the reason of why it has not been emulated to this day. Please access the link below to download the new research that explains how the Qur'an achieves this unique literary form.
2. The Unique Linguistic Genre
The Qur’an achieves a unique linguistic genre by fusing cohesive and rhetorical elements of language in every sentence. In the Qur'an these two elements can not be divorced from eachother, any change to a Qur'anic phrase ceases to be or sound like the Qur'an. Arabic texts mostly employ cohesive elements of language, however the Qur'an is the only text to have rhetorical and cohesive features in every phrase.Please access the link below to download the research explaining how the Qur'an achieves this unique genre: The Unique Genre of the Qur'an.
The Qur'an can only be described as the 'peak of eloquence'. It selects the perfect words in the most apt arrangements to achieve the intended communicative goal. When the Qur'an is compared to any other Arabic text, past or present, it transcends the choices made by human authors; including words, pronouns, sounds, rhythms and particles.Please access the link below to download the research on how the smallest chapter in the Qur'an achieves this unparalled peak of eloquence.
4. Frequency of Rhetorical Features
The Qur’an is a ‘sea of rhetoric’. The Qur’an exhibits an unparalleled frequency of rhetorical features, surpassing any other Arabic text, classical or modern. The use of rhetoric in the Quran stands out from any type of discourse.A close up analysis of the Quran can highlight a wide range and frequency of rhetorical features.This is a comprehensive subject that requires further analysis, however to highlight the Qur’ans uniqueness, the following list has been provided to show that the Qur’an employs more rhetorical features than any other rhymed prose; past or present. Please access the link below to download the list of rhetorical features in the Qur'an.
5. Rational Deduction
This argument is based upon a well known historical fact, supported by Eastern and Western Scholarship. Before we start to discuss the historical realities of the Qur'an and linguistic capabilities of the Classical Arabs, we first need to explain what we mean by 'rational deduction'.
Rational Deduction is the thinking process starting with one universally accepted statement that no one can doubt, and using rational deduction, drawing logical conclusions that draw from that statement.
With regards to the Qur'an, the universally accepted statement is that the Arabs at the time of revelation reached the peak of expressing themselves in the Arabic language. The Qur'an came with a challenge - to produce 3 lines of Arabicthat will match the linguistic and literary reality of the text. Many at the time of revelation attempted to challenge the Qur'an, and as can be seen by the preserved written challenges, they all failed. They came to the conclusion that it was a form of 'magic' and what is interesting to note is that they never claimed that Muhammad was the author or the Qur'an.
So who was the Author?
When questioning the authorship of the Qur'an, in the context of the 'universally accepted statement' and the other arguments below, one must first understand who the Qur'an could have possible come from. There are a few options:
i. An Arab ii. A non-Arab iii. Muhammad iv. The Creator
The Qur’an is matchless in its Arabic and beyond comparison amongst other literature. It defies sense for it to have been written by someone who could not understand Arabic. Think of a literary work in English e.g. Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein or Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre. Could one without English have been the author? Do the same for literature in other languages. Dante’s Divine Comedy, Cervantes’ Don Quixote, Tolstoy’s War and Peace, Aristophanes’ Clouds and so on. It would not be serious to claim that such work could be achieved without access to the language itself therefore the first option of a non-Arab authoring the Qur’an can be safely eliminated.
If the Qur’an was authored by an Arab then the test of inimitability would not pose a real challenge just as it does not in other languages. Whatever one writes another can write a little in the same style but the challenge has been attempted by leading authorities in Arabic throughout history and has left all exhausted. Whenever an Arab attempts a passage trying to imitate the Qur'an's style and literary form he/she remains utterly elusive so we can safely state that the author of the Qur’an could not have been an Arab.
Muhammad, for all his greatness, was still an Arab like his brethren. It is also a matter of fact that the Prophet Muhammad was never accused of authoring the Qur’an by his contemporaries, even those who sought his death and ruin. Furthermore the hadith(recorded narrations attributed to the Prophet) are in a totally different style to the Qur'an. How can any man speak with two distinct styles over a 23 year period?
The only rational answer left is the Creator.